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  • d Consultationd
  • Sounding out concerned parties, as through surveys, meetings and public hearings, is crucial for planning, but is combined with other forms of participation to ensure that the information gathered truly reflects the needs and priorities of stakeholders and is used in the decision making.[1]

    [1]    Sherry R. Arnstein, “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 35, No. 4 (July 1969), pp. 216–24, at: https://www.participatorymethods.org/sites/participatorymethods.org/files/Arnstein%20ladder%201969.pdf.