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  • Gross (and Large-scale) Violations of Human Rights
  • In its forty fifth session of the sub commission on prevention of discrimination and protection of minorities. The sub commission adopted resolution E/CN.4/Sub.2/1993/10, to define the term of Gross & Large- Scale Violations of Human Rights, in article 1. Gross and large-scale human rights violations committed on the orders of a Government, or with its sanction are a grave violation of the principle of respect for human rights and constitute an international crime. Such violations shall be deemed to include principally the following:

    (a) Murder, including arbitrary execution;

    (b) Torture;

    (c) Genocide;

    (d) Apartheid;

    (e) Discrimination on racial, national, ethnic, linguistic or religious grounds;

    (f) Establishing or maintaining over persons the status of slavery, servitude or forced labour;

    (g) Enforced or involuntary disappearances;

    (h) Arbitrary and prolonged detention;

    (i) Deportation or forcible transfer of population.

    2. The provisions of paragraph 1 should not be regarded as detracting from the right of States to establish, in conformity with the norms of international law currently in force, lawful restrictions of human rights, especially in connection with the declaration of states of emergency or war.

    In 1993, the UN Commission on Human Rights affirmed that “the practice of forced evictions constitutes a gross violation of human rights, in particular the right to adequate housing…”(preamble to resolution 1993/77). [See Forced eviction above.]

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